This is a Song Dynasty kilns Dangyangyu porcelain surface pieces, glazed yellow milk with brown color “* * Si Zhang Liang, Cao Cao……” Other words, vigorous strokes, golden hook, iron row, non general builders wrote.
Chinese China ancient ceramics as an important carrier of traditional culture, contains the culture, history, folklore and other large amounts of information, the Song Dynasty kilns Dangyangyu porcelain pieces, I think so far in the ancient ceramics, Zhang Liang Cao Cao’s is the two historical figures.
Before the Song Dynasty on Cao Cao’s appraise, basically respect the historical facts, the “Three Kingdoms” to Cao Cao “author Chen Shou is very, super Shi Zhi Jie”, has been widely recognized. The Tang Dynasty called Cao Cao Tso, highly to the Southern Song Dynasty, regional situation, the ruler of Qi timid, unable to look at the world, the ruler here, day mountain Lou Wailou Restaurant, dance endlessly, permeates people to drink, tea, cockfighting, listening to storytelling for music. The rulers regarded as the orthodox, see Cao Wei as the number of. The emperors more feel linger on the state, the more Cao Cao their nightmare. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Han were ruled by different races, and the Han people were regarded as three people. The Southern Song Dynasty and to have the characters of the Han literati in the Yuan Dynasty, the iron rule, based on the integration of digestive storytelling, the birth of Yuanqu, in the hearts of the Mongolian rulers of the Yuan Dynasty is “usurped”.
Zhu Yuanzhang founded the Daming Dynasty and strengthened the centralization of state power. But on the issue of successors, there have been fierce struggle, many considerations. Finally to the throne to the “heavy civil superabundant, Wu Yong Guo dare” insufficient emperor – Emperor sun.
Zhu Yuanzhang is afraid of him after death, some people engage in the imperial throne at first, the number of. In his later years for hero slaughter, imprison blocked rebel content of the “Water Margin”, in recognition of the propaganda to loyalty, filial piety, righteousness, for the moral value of the “Three Kingdoms” and “three opera”, and in the rapid promotion of popularity, because Cao Cao and Liu Bei are positive and negative poles, a cop so, treacherous Cao Cao replaced the real Cao Cao, and was accepted by people.
In fact, Zhang Liang and Cao Cao are two Xing Han people, Han and Zhang Liang assisted Liu Bang for four hundred years, the Han dynasty built in the Eastern Han Dynasty, Cao Cao put down China unified north, and implemented a series of policies to restore economic production and social order. “He thought maybe a good wife, good thinking in chaos”, the Song Dynasty Dangyangyu kiln for poetry writing form of decorative ceramics in the north often invade the south of Jin, porcelain artist with porcelain for the media to express text. For heaven Zhang Liang, Cao Cao such a person to fight Jinbing, unified North china.
Text written in verse Jinbing invade South Dangyangyu porcelain of the United States Li Qinghua Collection – the green waist pillow type poetry “is difficult years shortage career empty, the brothers each west east garden, scattered hostility, wandering road in the flesh. Hanging shadow is divided into thousands of miles goose, night country heart five.”
“When you hear Yingshui Jinbing south view road back, flesh everywhere, wept, for the inconvenience to road congestion, and still return the original County, write a poem, in the era of Shaoxing spring February shuori also.”
“Mount Huangshan Qiao and questions.”
You can imagine: “thought of Zhang Liang, Cao Cao” the inscription tablet is likely to be the Song Dynasty porcelain Dangyangyu kiln porcelain artist in the war situation, want peace mood creation.
There is a saying: “big device is difficult.”. That is, from the “red glaze” ware processing. The ancients like Zhu Hong, and we now say “bright red” is very different, the color is elegant and slightly partial orange red, if used bright red, vulgar.
Underglaze red, a burning in the more than 630 years before the end of the Yuan Dynasty, popular in the early Ming dynasty. Perhaps it is difficult to make the sauce in the glaze, and the rate of finished products is low. It will gradually disappear after the middle of Ming dynasty. During the reign of Yong Zheng and Qianlong, underglaze blue and red glaze were also introduced. The so-called blue and white glaze, red, red, red, two kinds of underglaze painted on the same object decoration. Under the cover of transparent glaze, it is calcined at high temperature. Changed before, only painted monotonous. Green and red and set off each other, particularly jiaorao, it is good to hear or see. During the Qing Dynasty, Kangxi also succeeded in burning underglaze red which had been lost for a long time, and its color was relatively stable. To Yong Zheng, the red underglaze red hue, color stability is fine; the drawn patterns, after firing lines can reach the pinnacle point.
The red color glaze by drawing copper oxide calcined, copper oxide at 800 degrees Celsius above the evaporation, but the temperature is blue fineness up to 1300 degrees Celsius; to keep blue and underglaze red color, a bit of luck. Therefore, the firing of underglaze red, from the preparation of pigments and the production process from beginning to end, must be very strict. If there is a slight deviation, there will be the possibility of the whole kiln scrapped. I once heard that the ancestors said that the burning of underglaze red, ten out of one, can be described as a good one! This is a great difficulty in the firing of underglaze red.
Underglaze red underglaze red color due to firing as blue hair color stability, so it is difficult to make itself much success in blue and white, can produce the ideal underglaze red is not much, but each time the underglaze red color features are more obvious, so by virtue of the characteristics of underglaze red the color of red, and the Association for dating and identification are very helpful in glaze. For example, during the reign of Emperor Qianlong, the red color in the glaze is gorgeous, and the red color is not small. It is estimated that not only copper oxide is used as glaze, but also mineral pigments such as iron oxide red and selenium red are used as glazes. The red color of the glaze in Hongwu is similar to black, and is also called “black in glaze”.
When the Ming Dynasty Hongwu underglaze red porcelain is more, the Yuan Dynasty style decoration legacy, light red color light gray, there are few pure. Xuan Dezhao underglaze red fire was very successful, forming a bright ruby red. Underglaze red as has been made successfully in the late Kangxi, so Yong Zheng early underglaze red product has the style of Kangxi Kangxi, the late imperial porcelain factory production level has been greatly improved, and the underglaze red porcelain painting color change, the underglaze red color. Because of the difficulty of firing underglaze red, hair color is difficult to grasp, so counterfeiters easier to betray.
It should be said that the difficulty of identifying the red in underglaze blue is not very great. There are two main criteria for evaluating underglaze red products: first, the glazed red finished products at the same kiln have a stable color and a consistent hue; secondly, the patterns and lines drawn are still clear after firing. Those who have both are better, and vice versa. Identification should also pay attention to underglaze red condensation point and glaze red hair color is not perfect, leading to partial black. Similar condensation points have similar characteristics in Kangxi, but they differ from qianlong. Comparison of “micro Qianlong kiln blue and white underglaze red book” a careful study, observe the hair color characteristics of the porcelain, it is easier to identify the authenticity.
Lang red, is a valuable Chinese copper red glaze most colorful, its features are: colorful, bright red, and has a strong glass luster. Because the glaze thick juice, produce flowing under high temperature, so the finished Lang Hong often in the mouth exposed along the white, showing a spiral line, commonly known as “Dengcao edge”. The bottom margin of glaze is condensed and almost black. In order to flow but the bottom glaze foot, with his blade in a two foot lateral scraping layer, blocking the flow of glaze drips down, this is a unique technique of Lang kiln Red China production process, there are “talk pedal Lang does not flow”.
Lang kiln red is one of the traditional Chinese red glaze is rare, because of its beginning in eighteenth Century Lang kiln in the Qing Dynasty Gonglang pole governor governor Tao Ting burning, so called “Lang red glaze” drunken beauty. Also known as the pink glaze, Haier face glaze, cowpea red glaze, glaze peach slices, early in the Ming Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty have great development. In the three dynasties of Qing Dynasty, Kangxi, Yong Zheng and Qianlong, the social economy was relatively prosperous, and the porcelain making process reached the peak in our country. Those who have been in the Ming Dynasty the varieties not only can improve or firing, and most innovative.
Because the emperor loves art, in his initiative, Lang Hongqi is more mature than Kangxi and many very refined products. Otherwise, the thin enamel during Qian Long Lang Hongzhong’s color, such as chicken, known as the “red blood”; the glaze layer is thick, deep color Yan, like the initial setting of cattle, known as the “blood red”. Lang Hongyou is based on copper as a colorant, burned at 1300 degrees high temperature. It is very difficult to bake a successful product because of its strict atmosphere and temperature. So when a Minyan said: “if you want to burn poor, Lang Hong.” It was very expensive in Hongqi Lang.
High temperature copper red first appeared in the Tang Dynasty in Changsha kiln, and in Tang, Changsha kiln and Song Dynasty kiln also used as decoration. The real firing of the same color as the copper red glaze porcelain of Jingdezhen kiln began in the Yuan Dynasty, the glaze color is dark red. It laid the foundation for the development of the copper red glaze.
To the early Ming Yongle, Xuan Tak years, Jingdezhen kiln really burning bright red copper glaze porcelain. But in the mid Ming Dynasty this Shaozao technology was lost. Until more than 200 years ago in the Qing Dynasty, Kangxi, in the Lang kiln, but also successfully fired high temperature copper red glaze porcelain.
Lang red is a relatively bright copper red glaze, the glaze smooth translucent, glass texture profile and ox hair pattern, color shades. Deep color Hongyan, features “as bright as a mirror, Run Ruyu, such as” red blood “, the sparkling glaze rich, generally as early scarlet blood coagulation, The brightness dazzles the eyes. The color is black, the pink is light, and the dark is brown.
Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, the famous Du kiln officer Lang Tingji, modeled on the Ming Dynasty Yongle copper red glaze porcelain of Jingdezhen kiln factory in the pavilion, the two generation of fine Xuande red glaze porcelain, and produced a new variety, great success, the copper red glaze burned more outstanding. From then on, since the technology of copper red glaze firing lost in the mid Ming Dynasty, regained production in 200 years after the Kangxi Dynasty, and all aspects of further development. Later generations to commemorate their achievements, and put the kiln products to name to name reputation, known as “the Lang kiln”.
Emperor Qian Long of the Qing Dynasty is the ancient porcelain collection of fanatical followers, wantonly to collect precious porcelain in Tang and Song Dynasties, and then display in the palace, day and night time. The Hongqi Lang also has a special liking, his poems praise: “halo like the red fire Laetitia, with micro processing technology. Cinnabar in the world is not intended, the Western stones difficult to bring the same. Flower color should make the flowers to shame, as his painting is empty than doubled”.
The world famous porcelain Jingdezhen porcelain is numerous, “1000 kiln a treasure” sacrificed red is one of them. Jingdezhen color glaze high attainments, created Jun red, red and other precious Lang red glaze. Jun red is red copper glaze varieties in China first appeared, from the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the mass production of Jingdezhen Jun porcelain. Ming Yong Xuan, Jingdezhen porcelain industry after Jun red, creating red. Red Jiao not brilliant red through violet, deep color and stability. The ancient royal sacrificial red glaze porcelain do, hence the name red. Because the firing difficulty is extremely great, the finished product rate is very low, therefore the price is extremely high. The ancients in the production of red porcelain, very precious materials such as coral, agate, jade, pearls and gold are too high.
According to legend, the Ming Dynasty Xuande Emperor Xuanzong, suddenly want to use a bright red porcelain memorial day, so a Jingdezhen governor officer Dahir kiln to burn. However, kiln workers repeatedly test, is not burn out so that the court satisfied used to. The daily supervision, supervision of the eunuch kiln kiln workers and whipped, a number of people in prison, claiming to burn out the red glaze porcelain of the emperor to kill bombarded. An old worker’s daughter Cui Lan, heard the news very worried, went to the Royal factory, found that her father was put in prison and official kiln. The grief Cuilan jumped into the burning kiln fire, with his own life and protest atrocities Guan kiln. Two days later, when the kiln workers open flames Cuilan, surprised to find that the ceramic firing appears as red blood. The red vessel burned, people say it’s blue blood red ceramic, then put the red porcelain, known as red. In order to commemorate the kiln body offering Cuilan, kiln workers later in the sealed kiln door, into a girl image of brick, this custom continues today. Since then, emperors at financial firing offering red, but the red porcelain, like the mythical treasure, very rare. This is the mysterious color red. In the nearly ten thousand pieces of collections of Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum, age only nine half, one of the Ming Dynasty Xuande age, when only half of the incomplete.
From the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, Chinese ceramic artist invented red glaze firing technology, the Northern Song Dynasty, Henan Yu Jun county to perfect this process, known as the “burning red glaze porcelain Jun red”. However, due to the immaturity of the firing process, red glaze often doped into other colors, while Jingdezhen people out of burning in the Xuande red, from the color of the color and purity, more than Jun, people call it “Xuande offering”. The Ming Dynasty Xuande years after hundreds of years, generations of Jingdezhen people, and has repeatedly tried to burn the red glaze porcelain, but did not burn out of the same age. The imperial kiln of Jingdezhen in the Ming Dynasty, is the imperial kiln, by the court under the orders for production, burn out porcelain for the use of the royal family, of course, can not tolerate the fineness of the product is not good. Therefore, the burnt porcelain must be picked by thousands of officers. Henan Jun “ten kiln is not nine”, that red glaze is an extremely difficult firing technology. Jingdezhen red than Jun red burned more difficult, according to the folk saying, called “1000 kiln a treasure”, is also hundreds of furnace kiln fire, in order to get one or two pieces of red. The Qing Dynasty in the “Tao Jingdezhen song” in the special account of the difficulty of firing sacrificial Red: “official kiln is a most difficult national fee wellwork Ji Hong. The frost is fine and the day is careful”.
Although the ceramic industry in Jingdezhen has a history of 1000 years, it has not yet gone out of the closed circle of handicraft industry. Especially the porcelain glaze formula, has always been the focus, craft secrecy generation family, no leakage, and the formula depends on the glaze of human experience and luck. The art of ceramics is the art of fire. Different compositions of glaze at different temperatures, different burning atmosphere can produce ever-changing colors, fire changed the chemical composition of the ceramic billet, torch soil became crystal clear gem. The people of Jingdezhen, Lang Hong created a sacrificial red glaze ceramic, also created the myth of ceramics. Now, the people of Jingdezhen still carry on the ancient porcelain making skills for thousands of years, and continue the legend of mud and fire.
Tea plays a significant role in the lives of Chinese people. Both “tea daily, daily necessities daily necessaries” and “poetry tea fancies of men of letters” refined, pragmatic and it will be accounted for empty. People always pay attention to the road with the delicacy as beauty “, the tea is more picky.
Along the way, we can see, from the extensive type to the soup to drink tea in the slow changes of fine goods, tea is also simple to elaborate. Elaborate up may be described: Chinese tea for coarse pottery and porcelain is fine, so lack of texture, texture color color deficiencies so that the lack of the carved block of chisel. Stealing thought, though simple and unsophisticated, good, but lost; fine, though good, but lost, clumsy, and clumsy in the possession of fine, is indeed the most wonderful.
This is why the “thousand year history of tea drinking, because love leaves light”.
Leaf light, produced in Jiangxi Jizhou kiln of song title, famous for its calyx leaf texture. The lines had less than odd, don’t you see the expression of the matriarchal age has renmian Yu Wen, let alone such as sea water, Xiang Yunwen, etc. This is not the only one series of characterizations of creeping pattern. Leaf pattern in Qi Qi, it is not a chisel, not carved, not carved, but nature leaves high temperature after in the embryo on the mark. This impression, both in the petiole and veins of leaves, the main reinforcement eye-catching, some even context also clear can touch. Leaf curl and posture, yutie calyx, as if just from which a tree fell carelessly, as if a gust of wind at any time and can blow it away. Where is the brand millennium, is clearly leisurely leisurely.
Jiangxi Jizhou kiln of Song Dynasty and the north of the same period, the Cizhou kiln North Fujian as the very local characteristics of the ancient kiln, a great impact. The black glazed ceramic is representative of Jizhou kiln “”. This is Japanese called “temmoku” of the Song Dynasty Jizhou kiln original black glaze products, variety, leaf, is constantly changing, Tianmu, tuhao, hawksbills Tianmu Tianmu yuteki Tenmoku, tiger, black glaze, black painted temmoku glaze with color and pigment Tianmu etc.. But the most artistic charm still leaves temmoku. If no leaves, only about Jizhou black porcelain and porcelain in the same period in the North has no two, but this is just a piece of leaf, the leaf became light black porcelain in Song Dynasty, and China tea in the category of the one and only.
People often say that every leaf in the world is different, in light of Jizhou kiln leaves and leaves, just confirms this sentence. The shape is really some tile lamp base, in different poses and with different expressions, some circumnutate fold, some lying light belly, some holding more light, in different. And the size, without a similar, can see the kilnman freely taken no deliberate, it is natural to the carving of natural beauty. Leaves a common one, but there are also many pieces of leaves, is said to be the most of a five piece, there are very few light heart light at the end of each one, quite interesting. What’s more, the leaves embedded in the lamp seem to stand out and feel as smooth as the bottom of the glass. The leaf blade with light brown yellow, there are gray, purple, and black side by side. In the twinkling of deep black muddy, Cecil stems leaves is so clear and vivid. Through the gap stems, in the light dark glaze wall, yellow leaves like dancing with the spirit of life.
Jizhou kiln has a characteristic, usually seems a glaze is not very smooth, but instantly become a water color glaze shine, shine, the effect is similar to the stone. The Jizhou kiln has the characteristics of light leaves play a more perfect, light water black and shiny, like grain after the new leaf leisurely float to the cup bottom, gives a fresh style. This almost natural decoration, although there is no turtle, yuteki Tenmoku the beautiful crystal, no skin, partridge Tianmu gorgeous colors, nor tuhao Tianmu Cecil hang flow fambe effect, but that the leaves of chastity Shen Mu, natural to the carving process, enough to make us dream. I can see the light will pour tea liquid, water infiltration of black shiny in the light in the bottom leaves floating about soup water, also seems to be floating up. Light bottom leaves and water swimming open tea, side by side, even the tea is also exceptionally smart.
After the Ming Dynasty Jiajing, appeared a eagle as the main varieties of porcelain patterns. This pattern, an eagle with a foot independent in stone above; stone is a vast ocean; there are layers of clouds and the sun in the sky. Looking closely at the eagle’s position, he held his head high and his eyes seemed to stare at the sun. This picture, what painting? After preliminary research, I think this figure is a manifestation of the rebellion of the “heroic” gas! Specifically, it was related to a civil uprising that took place in the reign of emperor xi.
Zhengde years for the emperor fatuous, the country is in a turbulent, there has been many events ranging from the size of the. Among them, Liu, six, Liu Qi uprising in the Hebei area, the largest shaking of the government and opposition.
Liu Liu, Liu caokou features at the beginning of the seven uprising, burning and looting, commit all sorts. Masanori six years (1511), Liu six, Liu Qi Lvzhong against Bazhou Wen’an, got a genius named Zhao,. Zhao Sui was originally a student, understand some Chinese pen and sword arts joined the rebellion, and soon became an important general. Zhao Sui asked the rebels not to know the killing of innocent people, for the people, focusing on the fight against corrupt officials, establish Justice Division of the image. Such a proposal has a great influence on the rebel army. At the same time, Zhao Sui also produced many exciting verses, couplets and so on as a slogan, to boost morale. For example, in the banner Gold Book couplet on cloud: “Huben three thousand, reaching the 95 Yan Fei;, reopen the chaos day.” Take the red color satin book: “the hero swallows the sea Yue, the imposing manner turns the universe.”.” Campaign in the country, often wrote this slogan: “deception will capture tiger sheep, Liuhe and who dare to catch?” “A few times in knock Jindeng, how many heroes a cold.” (see the seven amendment draft, volume thirteen)
Here, let’s focus on Zhao Sui’s slogan. “Huben three thousand, reaching the 95 Yan Longfei, chaos; reopening day.” This antithetical couplet momentum is very bold, directly to the world and declared hunjun. But the Union itself is an adaptation of the original sentence, from the late Yuan red army leader Han Shantong banner slogan: “Huben three thousand, reaching the 95 Yan; song Zhitian Longfei, reopening”. Zhao Sui changed “great song” to “chaos”, and a historical name became the most exciting slogan of Liu’s six and Liu’s seven uprising army. Later in the Qing Dynasty the Taiping Uprising also borrowed this copy, but the word “chaos” and for “Yao and shun”.
“Heroes swallow the sea, the momentum to heaven and earth” is Zhao Sui’s original, momentum seems to be more adequate. In ancient Chinese philosophy, the essence of the universe is “Qi”, and everything is transformed from qi. The hero of the uprising, the momentum can “Tun Haiyue”, can “turn the world”, then who else can shoulder to shoulder?
Zhao Sui’s slogan is quite encouraging for the insurgents. Have a high spirit, the army can move forward, they. Liu Liu Liu Qi, the rebel army led the largest squad about one hundred thousand, “disrupting the six provinces, more than two years, the extension of” break the state of the county pool is about two hundred seat. This record with Zhao Suishan to encourage the morale of the troops should have a great relationship.
Although the uprising led by Liu, six and Liu Qi failed at last, Zhao Sui’s slogan was widely circulated among the people. The challenge of imperial power, the traditional hierarchical society, but it is treason and heresy, but it can arouse people’s inner heart yearning for freedom and equality. The Ming Dynasty there are many literary works are keen on performance against the spirit of this painting is no exception.
We see porcelain painting “Eagle donkai Yue” (Figure 1). This picture can be said to directly illustrate the rebel slogan of Zhao Sui’s creation, “Heroes swallow the sea, the momentum of the universe.””. The image of the “Eagle”, and “hero” of the “British” homonym, it is a hero of the representatives. The eagle stands with a single foot, symbolizing its independent character. The eagle’s foot stone represents the mountain, with the eagle as a close range of unique angle of view, to create a mountain and sea, the body was high Eagle swallow a sense. This is exactly what the meaning of the “Eagle swallow the sea” (that is, “the hero swallows the sea Yue”).
The sun in the picture is the symbol of the emperor. The eagle of the sun refused to look askance at, the emperor hero, there are obvious challenges that. “Nanjing military and political leaders there?” This is the most daring rebel spirit in traditional society, directly change dynasties, talented. One of the eagle of the sun, with the slogan, Zhao second half sentence: “momentum difference”.
Peace, people talk about the history of the hero of the story in general not to move at leisure, for their heroism. This creates the need for people to appreciate this heroic spirit. Located in the “Eagle swallow sea Yue map”, is to meet the needs of appreciation and creation.
Mother’s Day is a mother’s day, which first appeared in ancient Greece, while the modern meaning of mother’s Day originated in the United States, and was designated as the second Sunday of May every year. People often say “Dad”, in fact, the success of children education “yanmu” There are plenty of people who are. On Mother’s day, let’s have a taste of “strict mother” on porcelain.
The mengmusanqian story map hatstand pastels (Figure 1)
“Three Character Classic” in “Xi Meng, Zelin” read famous, said that in the Warring States period, Mencius’s mother to let Mencius have a good learning environment, has three times to relocate their residence. Because of her son’s good education, only to become the “sage of Confucianism Mencius zte”. This is a three story hatstand pastel painted figure: mother dress, lips, hands slightly lift, seems to be in front of the old lady to inquire about the situation near. The maid next to him picked up the baggage with a bamboo pole and stood still. In front of the old woman with gray hair, bamboo, carrying baskets, bent back, seemed to answer questions. Small Mencius hand holding mother’s clothes, a hand in the mouth, like thinking what. The background is a tree full of flowers and trees. The hatstand 28 cm high, 12 cm diameter, glaze moist, fine brushwork, comfortable and elegant color.
Qing Dynasty mother-in-law thorn pattern of words multicolored market (Figure two)
Yue Fei’s mother, Mrs. Yao too, “the thorn” four words on the back of Yue Fei, to serve the country for the permanent hope that his son will, life to serve the motherland. As the epitome of maternal education and women’s model of mother-in-law, in the national crisis, Li son fight, sake, be virtuous mother Buddha become a favourite tale. This colorful market depicts the scene: cizi mother-in-law Yue Fei head wearing a hat, wearing robes, kneeling on the ground, his hands clawed back. Behind him was his mother, holding Yue Fei’s back in one hand, and holding an embroidery needle in one hand. She pursed her lips and thrust herself into the back of Yue Fei’s spine. The two maids on the right whispered, and the officer on the left held the token, and the book boy carried the sword. This offer is 36 cm in diameter, open edge, short foot disc type Zhou Zheng, Taizhi delicate, soft and shiny, color harmony, beautiful and generous.
In the late Qing Dynasty three light purple color tank Godson (Figure three)
Three Niang Godson story comes from the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty Opera House novelist Li Yu’s “Silent Drama”. Because the naughty brother Niang leaned, did not study hard, angry, cut off with a knife cloth, a warning, then leaned brother to study hard, successful. The light purple color tank is presented: the story of the spring breeze Niang godson, taogongliulu, butterfly flying, it is a good time to spring outing, three Niang with several children, to nature, feel the beauty of spring. A child wearing red, waving the fan; a child dressed in green, with a spider; a child wearing purple clothes, hid behind the niang. Three Niang comb hair, wearing a gown, flowers in hand, Meiqingmuxiu, refined and cultured, forms a dignified. The whole picture was permeated with a peaceful atmosphere. The tank is 26 cm high, 8.5 cm diameter, bottom diameter of 12 cm, painters delicate, vivid glaze are good, which is quite rare
In the early Qing Dynasty Jingdezhen kiln porcelain production, as well as the implementation of the “official ride fever” system in Ming Dynasty, which not only to fully release the civilian production potential, to mobilize the enthusiasm of the craftsman, improved the scale and production workshop kilns fine porcelain kilns and kiln technology, because of the mutual influence, mutual promotion, invisible to stimulate the further development of folk blue and white porcelain industry, which is also an important reason in the early Qing Dynasty blue and white porcelain kilns produced by the majority of the.
As for the specific characteristics of the Qing Dynasty Jingdezhen’s blue and white porcelain, are as follows:
(1): in the early Qing Dynasty blue and white porcelain glaze thick matrix gray or grayish yellow, high degree of porcelain, the glaze glaze most closely, a duck’s egg Qing, poor transparency, gloss is not strong, individual glaze glaze shrinkage, most sauce, and many large Zhuo bottom glaze, tire repair is not too regular, dish bottom edge gradually thick, flat and thin, with slightly inward, and some artifacts along the foot after careful craftsman dressing, there are also loach back phenomenon is smooth, the bottom with red or red flint kiln.
(2) green material: most of the blue and white porcelain in the early Qing Dynasty is made of domestic Zhejiang materials, roughly green, elegant and gray basket, and the overall color stability, a few tend to gray, there are some blue and white halo scattered and decorative fuzzy phenomenon.
(3): blue and white porcelain in the Qing Dynasty style life is mainly supplemented by other furnishings, focus on practicality, is basically a continuation of the Ming Dynasty traditional style, shape also has ancient legacy of the Ming dynasty.
(4): the blue and white porcelain in the Qing Dynasty blue and white decoration decoration painting a plain nature, past single Ping Tu method, instead of using the techniques of multi line flat painted exquisite symmetry, density, mutual reflect, bold, and decorative patterns were rich, common animal pattern, plant pattern, landscape map, BOGUTU dragon, tall and strong, vigorous, mood elevating trend, kylin and often Tingbo Pakistan banana leaf together, side by side, and the banana leaf pattern in space.
In conclusion, the identification of the beginning of Qing Dynasty’s blue and white porcelain, have extensive contact with the blue and white porcelain of Qing Dynasty, in order to raise the level of appreciation and Yang Pei, that is the only way to get the correct and impartial appraisal conclusion, as the ancients said: “fuck one thousand and then Xiao, view thousand swords then knows”. There is a lot of truth in that. How about the identification of blue and white porcelain?. Therefore, we should follow this principle, we must see more, more contrast, more analysis to identify the authenticity. Qing Dynasty in the “Tao Yun” has said that the blue and white porcelain: “white porcelain, blue and white a” fire “, the flowers from the glaze to see transparent, can be applied to the innate nature of the wonderful, no origin, no extreme life.”.” Fully explain the artistic charm of blue and white porcelain. You see, I have a simple strokes, from the inside of the 2290, obviously tonal and pure, has an incomparable brilliant, obviously unrestrained romantic, but have a casual calm, when Qing Ying has an elegant, gentle mood can melt…… Therefore, it is a fate to meet with the blue and white porcelain. When you see it, you will be shocked, attracted and obsessed by it immediately!
The porcelain art of the Yongle period of Ming Dynasty was original and diverse, and it was the peak of the history of Arts and crafts in East asia. 05 2017 18 July, the Imperial Palace Museum in Taipei launched the “heart – Ming Emperor Yongle for porcelain exhibition, featured hundreds of pieces of Yongle porcelain products presents a complete. This is the first time since the opening of the the Imperial Palace in Taipei, the Chinese emperors of the Ming Dynasty held a special exhibition.
The late Ming dynasty literati in Ming porcelain when talking about the official, once mentioned “Yongle and Xuande years Shaozao palace, so far for you. At that time, to brown eyes, sweet white as a constant, to sue Ma Ma from the green as the decoration, with red as treasure”. This passage clearly sums up the porcelain of Yongle Emperor, and the most typical ones are sweet white, blue and white porcelain and red glazed porcelain.
Sweet white is often
“Jie Su Ying ran, very suitable for the heart” is the Emperor Yongle praise for his beloved porcelain. Sweet white glaze firing Yu Yongle, quiet and elegant, to create a new look of white porcelain.
Sweet white porcelain is Yongle Palace main porcelain. According to the 1989 Jingdezhen Zhushan Ming Dynasty kiln factory site excavation report, Yongle early in the formation of sweet glaze porcelain accounted for more than 98% of all excavated. According to a large number of scholars have speculated that the Emperor Yongle Shaozao white porcelain and may He Yan period in Peking, the yuan is Bai atmosphere related infection. Built for its return on their parents of the Jinling porcelain tower, is built with white tiles, so there are a lot of people speculate that the firing of the white glaze porcelain not only contains religious meaning, but also carries the emperor to parents memorial.
The same shape of the pot rare, the the Imperial Palace in Taipei on the possession of a same shape, the body is decorated with a pair of blue and white phoenix three bamboo teapot, some scholars speculate that both the palace for tea. In the Southern Song Dynasty in Guangdong, Taishan, the water had also had a tin pot of similar shape, and some scholars speculated that it was used as a soup bottle for muslims.
From the Tsing Ma Su for decoration
Yongle and Xuande, blue and white porcelain is containing cobalt oxide mineral pigments, painted decoration on the ceramic green body, cast a layer of transparent glaze, by about 1200 DEG C high temperature firing and works. The Ming Dynasty Yongle and Xuande period gaudy blue hair color, and green rust spots with infiltration, forming a unique distinctive style.
In the court request and under the supervision of the porcelain house “to sample preparation, only to make the same kiln. The official works with shape of neat, pure glaze, decoration in the specification of the phenomenon started at this time. Substandard works are often deliberately smashed and hidden, and burnt porcelain is used as a national ritual or court routine, or as a gift to foreign countries. During the period of Yongle and Xuan Tak, many large instruments such as celestial bottles and flat pots were fired.
“To the poor, burning red” Jingdezhen is a local proverb. High temperature red glaze is copper as a coloring agent, high temperature firing in a reducing atmosphere, is one of the most difficult varieties of color glaze firing success. Because of its particularly sensitive to temperature, atmosphere, a little careless, is not pure red, so Jingdezhen Zhushan site also see a lot of firing failure break buried red enamel jig selection.
The Yongle period begins, Jingdezhen red glaze porcelain glaze in the pure. A change in the Yuan Dynasty red glaze color gray glaze effects, with red like blood like color known as “red blood”, “red” and “Ruby red”.
The red glaze footed bowl mouth outside, deep wall, high handle waste. The whole is red glaze, glaze juice Ying thick, is located at the foot of bright colors, padding. The inside wall of cone arch Shuanglongxizhu pattern, plain wall decoration. The heart has “Yongle bowl” double line four character seal mark with lace.
The invention refers to the use of hand painting, glazed chemical pigment special daily porcelain, a planar ceramic crafts by high-temperature firing. The invention can be mounted, or embedded in the screen, as ornamental plants. The earliest can be traced back to the Qin and Han Dynasties, and the true meaning of the “porcelain painting” appeared in the middle of Ming dynasty. From the beginning of Qing Dynasty, the development trend of prosperity.
Although the history is not long, but its high reputation at home and abroad and the status of Chinese painting profound culture, popular collectors favorite. In recent years, with the improvement of people’s living standard, art collections have been more and more popular, especially high-end art prices continue to rise. In the field of painting and calligraphy collection, the period of the Republic of China’s most prestigious “eight friends of Zhushan porcelain painting” has become a popular collection of collectors bid, and appeared all kinds of auction and exhibition. In fact, the Republic of China has been undervalued in the state of the art market. But in recent years the “Zhushan eight” Friends of the auction market, its turnover is rising trend year by year. In less than several decades, “the price” eight friends in Zhushan the line rose from a few million to hundreds of thousands, even millions of. These data are sufficient to explain “naked” eight friends in Zhushan porcelain painting has a broad appreciation of space.